Guide to glass selection


    CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GLASS
    USE OF GLASS
    GLASS PRODUCTION TECHNIQUE
    FLOAT GLASSES
    TYPE OF GLASS FOR BUILDING
         tempered or tempered glass
         coupled or laminated glass
         armored glass
         double glazing or insulating glass
    WORKING ON GLASS
         tempered and lacquered glass doors
         positive sandblasted glass doors
         negative sandblasted glass doors
         satin glass doors
         engraved glass doors
         engraved and colored glass doors
         glass doors engraved with gold application
         silk-screened glass doors
    GLASS COLORS
    HOW MUCH THE GLASSES COST
    PRICES GLASS DOORS THE DIFFERENT SOLUTIONS
    HANDLING AND TRANSPORTING GLASSES
    OUR TIPS ON HOW TO CLEAN GLASSES
    DISPOSAL OF BROKEN GLASS - HIDDEN COSTS
    DOES THE GLASS BREAK?
    MECHANICAL PARAMETERS OF THE GLASS - POSSIBLE BREAKS
    GLASS AND EUROPEAN STANDARDS
    TECHNICAL STANDARDS ON WINDOWS WITH APPLIED GLASS

A ductile material, but at the same time fragile and dangerous, for these characteristics it is appropriate to understand the characteristics.

In this article you will find a glossary, with a simple explanation, of the terms relating to glass for building and all the processes that can undergo to strengthen and embellish it, a handy buying guide.

First let's talk about the main characteristics of glass.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GLASS

- transparency

- very smooth surface

- impermeability to liquids, gases, vapors and microorganisms

- inalterability over time

- sterilisability

- perfect environmental compatibility thanks to the possibility of recycling it countless times.

USE OF GLASS

In recent years, glass has grown significantly and is used in the construction, industrial and domestic sectors:

in building constructions (fixtures, parapets or roofs)

in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals or household items (vases, cosmetics, drugs and glasses)

for decorative elements (objects and chandeliers)

in industry in very sophisticated sectors (fiber optics, telecommunications, spacecraft)

GLASS PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES

There are several glass processing techniques:

Cylindrical glasses mainly made by blowing (cylindrical glasses, bottles)

Fluid glass is blown inside cylindrical metal molds.

Plate glass was first made by the following methods:

by casting (cast or laminated glass)

extrusion

lamination

However, they had poor quality and aesthetic defects.

These processing techniques are no longer widely used and we only remember it for the production of special or decorative glass:

printed glass (an embossed design is printed on the surface)

wired glass (a metal mesh is inserted inside it and is used for safety in the areas under the light of the parapet of the windows)

ornamental glass FLOAT GLASSES

With the production process invented by Alastair Pilkington, 90% of the flat glass is with the floating system called float glass.

The procedure is very simple and revolutionary:

1) To raw materials, suitably weighed and mixed, consisting of silica sand (the glazing agent), soda (the flux), lime (the stabilizer). The vitrifiable mixture is then introduced into an oven where it is melted at a temperature close to 1550 ° C

2) the liquid glass at about 1000 ° is poured on a bath of molten tin, where, having a higher density, it floats.

3) floating on the pond, it spreads along the surface forming a smooth surface on both sides

4) as it "walks" on the pond it cools and solidifies, forming a continuous ribbon

5) heated again, the glass is "fire polished", two perfectly parallel surfaces are formed as if by magic

TYPES OF GLASS for building

We will focus on GLASS for building, a versatile component used in many fields in construction, the main types are the following:

 

- tempered or tempered glass

- coupled or laminated glass

- armored glass

- insulating glass

- structural glazing

 

TEMPERED OR HARDENED GLASS

It is a glass obtained from a normal sheet of float glass, heated at high temperature until the structure softens. It is abruptly cooled with jets of cold air.

Tempered glasses are obtained through tempering, which is nothing more than a heat treatment that gives the glass particular characteristics of resistance to impacts, thermal shocks and bending.
Industrial process to obtain a tempered glass.

1) The sheet glass is placed in an oven heated to the glass transition temperature of 640 ° C

2) The glass cools abruptly through jets of air. In this way the external surface hardens, while the still hot and viscous internal part cools more slowly

Particularly used in construction, tempered or tempered glass is used in safety situations and where the ability to withstand high temperatures is required.

Tempered glass is a perfect material for creating architectural elements without a load-bearing structure, such as doors, dividers, shower stalls and exposed glass railings.

When tempered glass breaks, the forces of tension and compression instantly cause cracks in all directions, so that the glass shatters into many small, non-sharp splinters, instead of breaking into a few pointed and much more dangerous pieces, as in the case of than normal glass.

COUPLED OR LAMINATED GLASSES

The laminated glass has a higher thermal and acoustic insulation capacity than the monolithic sheet of the same thickness.

Laminated glass is particularly used for the construction of shop windows, shatterproof windows and doors, armored doors, post office and bank branches.

In case of breakage, the intermediate plastic layer keeps the fragments in position and the glass, even if hit with violence, can crack, but it is difficult to break through. The PVB layer also gives the material greater acoustic insulation power and reduces ultraviolet transparency by 99%. A laminated glass is obtained, which increases the solidity of the glass itself and in case of breakage, prevents the dispersion of splinters .

 
The laminated crystals are also used in all situations in which a possible fall or break of the sheet can cause damage to things or people.

Industrial process to obtain a tempered glass.

By coupling the glasses with 2 or more glasses with a sheet of plastic adhesive (PVB or Polyvinyl Butyrate), under the combined action of heat (about 70 ° C) and pressure which have the purpose of expelling the air and joining the materials.

 

ARMORED GLASS

Armored glass is safety glass and is composed of the coupling of at least 3 glass plates and 2 sheets of adhesive and transparent PVB.

The armored glass increases the degree of active safety (the ability of the glass to prevent intrusions) and passive safety (in case of breakage, the armored windows do not cause damage to things or people).

As a rule, public buildings, banks, commercial businesses, shops are installed in residential environments.

INSULATING ROOM GLASS

Insulating glasses are particularly used in construction, there are considerable advantages from an economic point of view and also from an ecological point of view.

Insulating glass also known as double glazing, in addition to increasing thermal insulation performance, is extremely useful for total acoustic insulation.
Industrial process to obtain a tempered glass.

Consisting of double or triple glazing, they are made with two or more glass sheets joined together by a spacer frame made with aluminum. The two glass panes are separated by a layer of air or gas; argon, krypton, which are intended to increase thermal and acoustic insulation.

 

WORKING ON GLASS

- There are many processes that can be carried out on the glass

- Lacquered glass

- Positive sandblasted glass

- Negative sandblasted glass

- Frosted glass

- Etched glass

- Etched and colored glass

- Glass engraved with gold application

- Silk-screened glass

- Furthermore, any type of hole or slot cut can be made on the glass, using laser machines.

porta scorrevole vetro laccato

 

TEMPERED AND LACQUERED GLASS DOORS

It is a tempered glass, to which mineral pigments in RAL colors are applied, totally or only partially on the surface. Painted or lacquered glass is produced by painting one of the faces of a flat glass with a ceramic layer which, when treated at high temperatures, is firmly fixed to the surface and does not fade.


POSITIVE BLASTED GLASS DOORS

Sandblasting is perhaps the most ancient method of decorating glass and is based on the glazing of the same by means of corundum, which has now replaced the sand, shot by a compressor at about 6 atm.Thanks to special masking it is possible to obtain a design with decorative effect on the glass surface.

Positive sandblasting, the decoration is directly sandblasted on the slab taking on a lighter color

NEGATIVE BLASTED GLASS DOORS

Negative sandblasting, usually carried out on transparent glass, the entire plate is sandblasted except for the decoration which remains transparent.


SATIN GLASS DOORS

Hydrofluoric acid is used for the etching process, the only one capable of attacking the glass, obtaining a satin finish that makes them more resistant to stains than simple sandblasting. A uniform etching allows to obtain a homogeneous surface similar to silk, pleasant to the touch, called "satin".


TRANSPARENT ENGRAVED GLASS DOORS

The engraving on the glass is a deeper sandblasting, which creates a transparent groove on the glass. Each process is performed manually and makes each glass unique.


ENGRAVED AND COLORED GLASS DOORS

Initially a deep incision is created by sandblasting.


then manually a scratch-resistant resin in RAL colors is applied. After drying, a transparent epoxy resin is applied to make the gilding resistant over time.

ENGRAVED GLASS DOORS WITH GOLD APPLICATION

The engraving and application of 24 K gold leaf. As a first stage of processing, a deep sandblasting is carried out which creates a groove on the glass.


Subsequently, a very thin sheet of pure 24 carat gold is spread and glued manually. After drying, a transparent epoxy resin is applied to make the gilding resistant over time.


SCREEN-PRINTED GLASS DOORS

The silk-screen printing technique that is used to reproduce images or documents, the printing takes place by means of a cliclé or printing frame where an ink is slid that passes through the meshes depositing on the glass reproducing the desired design.

The main uses of screen printing are reproductions of art, paintings, signs, drawings.

Lately with the new laser or micro inkjet printers this process has become cheaper and faster.

GLASS COLORS

Normally the glass is transparent depending on the substances dissolved in the glass determine the color tone. The colored glass in the paste based on the added minerals takes on different colors.

- Blue-green glass with the addition of iron oxide

- Purple red glass with copper oxide addition

- Blue-green colored glass with the addition of copper oxide

- Bronze colored glass added with cobalt, selenium and iron

- Deep blue glass with the addition of cobalt oxide

- Gray colored glass with addition of cobalt, selenium, iron and chromium

- Pink-purple glass with the addition of colloidal gold and tin

- Yellow-orange-red colored glass with the addition of colloidal selenium and cadmium
HOW MUCH THE GLASSES COST

The cost of the glass varies greatly depending on the type of glass to be used, the thickness of the glass itself and the decorations that are going to be created, in summary the cost varies from a minimum of € 15.00 square meter to a maximum of € 300.00 square meter

We consider a thickness of mm. 8

- FLOAT GLASS from a minimum of € 15.00 per square meter.

- TRANSPARENT TEMPERED FLOAT GLASS € 100.00 per sqm.

- LAMINATED FLOAT GLASS € 25.00 per sqm.

- FLOAT TEMPERED SATIN GLASS € 110.00

- TRANSPARENT TEMPERED FLOAT GLASS WITH SANDBLASTING € 180.00 per sqm.

- FLOAT TEMPERED SATIN GLASS WITH SANDBLASTING € 190.00 per sqm.

- TRANSPARENT TEMPERED FLOAT GLASS WITH ENGRAVING € 220.00 per sqm.

- FLOAT TEMPERED SATIN GLASS WITH ENGRAVING € 230.00 per sqm.

- CLEAR TEMPERED FLOAT GLASS WITH COLORED ENGRAVING € 250.00 per sqm.

- FLOAT TEMPERED SATIN GLASS WITH COLORED ENGRAVING € 280.00 per sqm.

- TRANSPARENT TEMPERED FLOAT GLASS WITH SCREEN PRINTING € 390.00 per sqm.

- LACQUERED TEMPERED FLOAT GLASS € 280.00 per sqm.

For colored glass there is an increase of 10 to 20% to be considered

PRICES GLASS DOORS THE DIFFERENT SOLUTIONS

- Tempered glass door lacquered in RAL colors € 700.00

- Positive frosted frosted tempered glass door € 600.00

- Transparent tempered glass door sandblasted to negative € 600.00

- Satin tempered glass door € 500.00

- Engraved tempered glass door € 700.00

- Engraved and colored tempered glass door € 800.00

- Tempered glass door engraved with gold application € 1500.00

- Screen-printed tempered glass door € 900.00

* indicative prices to be calculated VAT and TRANSPORT


HANDLING AND TRANSPORTING GLASSES

A glass door, especially if it is very large, can break even for simple bending.

To lift, move and / or transport a glass plate, it is always good to be two people:

- The glass plate must be lifted from the corners at the same time, always being very careful not to hit the edges.

To handle the glass we recommend proceeding as follows:

1) The slab must always be kept on the edge;

2) If you have to place the glass temporarily, you can lean it against a wall, always on the edge and lean it at an angle.

3) As a rule, it is preferable to place the long side on the floor and on the wall with the interposition of a thick cardboard or a soft material.

OUR TIPS ON HOW TO CLEAN GLASSES

Window cleaning is undoubtedly one of the most demanding activities. It can sometimes be a long operation and is often also difficult. However, this type of cleaning can also become practical and fast if you follow some important precautions.

In most cases, however, home remedies with natural ingredients such as vinegar, water, alcohol and bicarbonate, prove to be much more effective and above all also allow savings from an economic point of view.

Prepare 1 liter of warm water, half a glass of white wine vinegar and half a glass of alcohol: pour the solution into a "spray bottle", rinse and dry the glass.

To avoid the formation of specks and halos after drying the glass, it is necessary not to use water with a high concentration of limestone and not to wash the windows when the sun shines. For cleaning small or medium-sized surfaces, you can choose between microfibre or chamois cloths, or newspaper, usually the most used, as it guarantees thorough cleaning, without streaks and residues.


If the crystal is satin, decorated, engraved, reflective or printed: dust the glass with a soft cloth; wash with water mixed with neutral silicone-free detergent products for glass; rinse and dry immediately with a clean and soft cloth, preferably in microfibre, always wiping it in the same direction.                                         

If the crystal is sandblasted: dust the glass with a soft or semi-hard brush, made of natural bristle or synthetic fiber (attention: the brush must not be abrasive or metal); wash with water, mixed with neutral soap or Marseille soap, dissolved in water; rinse and dry immediately with a microfibre or chamois cloth, always wiping it in the same direction.

For a deeper cleaning, moisten a cotton cloth with RIO AZZURRO, pass it on the area to be treated and rinse with water. be careful not to use on engraved and colored or gilded glass.                                                            

If the crystal is enameled: dust the glass with a soft and clean cloth; wash with a solution prepared with 70% warm water and 30% alcohol; rinse and dry immediately with a clean and soft cloth, preferably in microfibre, always wiping it in the same direction. It is important not to use chemical products or abrasive wool pads that could damage or scratch the enameled surface.

Another product to use, but only in extreme cases is the RUBOUT, attention not to be used on engraved and colored or gilded glasses.


RubOut is a Special Cream that removes limescale, rust, mineral residues from all types of glass and shiny surfaces, even from glass that has not been cleaned for years.

The product must be used pure in small quantities spread on the surface with a white rectangular pad, left to act for a few minutes and then rub in a circular way with the same pad.

Removes residues without damaging surfaces. Before applying RubOut, always carry out a test. Do not use on glass with film.

You can buy Rubout on AMAZON https://www.amazon.it/RUB-OUT-DETERGENTE-PER-VETRI/dp/B009EU9Y5O

DISPOSAL OF BROKEN GLASS, HIDDEN COSTS

If you have to replace a frame with the glass applied, the item of the disposal of the old frame must also be considered. related inconveniences.

From the seller to obtain a certificate of regular disposal of the frame, to avoid a complaint for abandonment of waste!

THE GLASS BREAKS

Regarding the safety of glass, it can be said that thermally tempered glass in case of breakage breaks up into small fragments, so much so that it is called anti-injury glass. based on the UNI EN 12600 standard.

The most delicate points of a glass plate are the edges.

Even if the glass is very well tempered, the weak point are the edges and if an edge is hit with an object, or in the case of a glass door, it is placed on an edge, you can be almost certain that the sheet will break.

The quality of the tempera is associated with the type of fragmentation that is obtained, in the photo you can see the break into small fragments and it is clear that the tempera was made in a workmanlike manner and that despite the tempera it has given the glass a strength 5 times superior to float glass, the blow that the glass suffered was very strong, so much so that it caused the whole glass to collapse, making it in small parts that are not very sharp.

 
MECHANICAL PARAMETERS OF THE GLASS any breakages

The quality of the tempera is associated with the type of fragmentation that is obtained, in the photo of the small fragments, it is clear that the tempera was made to perfection and that despite the tempera it gave the glass a strength 5 times higher than float glass , the blow that the glass suffered was very strong, so much so that it made all the glass collapse.

The thermal process of tempering to which the glass is subjected causes a thermal shock which hardens the structure of the glass and makes it more resistant. In case of defects in the molecular structure of the glass already in the tempering phase or within 24 hours the glass breaks in the cooling phase.

In addition to the merits and advantages of glass, there is an indisputable disadvantage: breaking!

Tempering glass improves its resistance, but it BREAKS! excluding the obvious case of impact, it breaks when subjected to tensile stresses.

Tempering improves the resistance to breaking of the glass by increasing its ability to withstand the stresses produced by accidental or systematic events, which would lead to breakage.

The resistance to breaking of the glass with the tempering process increases by 5 times the resistance to the absorption of accidental blows.

The breaking of tempered sheets never occurs in an inexplicable way and there are no “spontaneous breaks”, the breakage is the result of a multiplicity of causes that create the conditions for shattering the glass.

Even a stress applied to a circumscribed part can produce breakage, similarly a very intense stress can also be critical for an optimally tempered sheet.

GLASS AND EUROPEAN STANDARDS

 

Over time, an attempt has been made to standardize the characteristics, referring to European standards.

The following table summarizes the main mechanical and thermal parameters [Source: UNI EN 572-1]

Glasses play a very important role, in this regard the legislator wanted to define the characteristics to which producers must comply with standards. The main reference standards are the following:

    UNI EN 12150-1: 2001 Glass for building - Thermally toughened sodium-calcium silicate safety glass - Definition and description
    UNI EN 12150-2: 2005 Glass in building - Thermally toughened soda lime silicate safety glass - Part 2: Conformity assessment / Product standard.

Technical standards on window frames with applied glass

   - UNI EN 947: 2000 Hinged or pivoted doors - Determination of resistance to vertical load
   - UNI EN 948: 2000 Hinged or pivoted doors - Determination of resistance to static torsion
   - UNI EN 949: 2000 Windows and curtain walls, doors and shutters - Determination of the resistance of doors to impact with soft and heavy bodies
   - UNI EN 12046-2: 2002 Maneuvering forces - Test method - Doors
   - UNI EN 1191: 2002 Windows and doors - Resistance to repeated opening and closing - Test method
   - UNI EN 1192: 2000 Doors - Classification of mechanical resistance requirements
   - UNI EN 1527: 2000 Accessories for doors and windows - Accessories for sliding doors and folding doors - Requirements and test methods
   - UNI 10807: 1999 Railings, balustrades or prefabricated parapets - Determination of mechanical resistance to dynamic loads
   - NF P01–013: 1998 resistance to dynamic loads pendulum test according to standard
   - UNI 10807: 1999 Railings, balustrades or prefabricated parapets - Determination of mechanical resistance to dynamic loads
    INFRASTRUCTURE DM OF 14/01/2008 LINEAR HORIZONTAL LOAD

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